Adoptive Cell Therapy
In 2016, an expected 1.6 million people will be diagnosed with cancer nationally, with over 589,000 deaths, (American Cancer Society). Current Standard of Care has traditionally been surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation. Cancer immunotherapy, uses the immune system to treat or prevent cancer, and is expected to grow to 60% of treatment in 10 years with revenue opportunity of $35 billion.
Adoptive Cell Therapy - CAR T: A Genetically Engineering Serial Killer Cell
How CAR T-cell therapy works is immune T-cells are harvested from a patient’s blood. They are genetically modified in the lab to be equipped with a protein, chimeric antigen receptor called CAR. The modified cells are then injected back into the patient’s bloodstream. Part of the CAR protein (an antibody-like domain) protrudes outside of each T-cell and directly binds to its target protein on a cancer cell. Upon binding, the inside part of CAR instantly activates the T-cell to attack the cancer cell. This approach bypasses the multilayered activation process that is required by unmodified T-cells to attack their targets.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cells (CAR T cells) are T-cells that have been modified to have man-made receptors at the surface of immune cells, to enable them to recognize a desired protein (antigen) and trigger the killing of cells harboring this antigen at their surface. Upon cell-to-cell contact between effector and targeted cells, antigen recognition will activate the effectors, giving them the signal to attack their targets, and leading ultimately to the killing of cancer cells.
In a couple of the hugely successful small trials in ALL patients, the target protein for CAR in modified T-cells was CD19. CD19 is expressed on the surface of normal blood cells known as B cells, as well as on ALL cells that are cancerous B cells. Dozens of new CAR T-cell therapy trials are now testing CAR proteins that target other proteins expressed on the surface of blood cancer cells. These proteins are not found on other tissues or organs in the body.
Treating Glioblastoma, GBM often requires repeated injection of chemotherapy or radiotherapy with a very limited efficacy OS = 14 months. This imposes a major burden on the healthcare system and reduces patient life expectation. Effective CAR-T treatment could be transformational, compared to traditional approaches
Traditional approaches to this difficult problem have relied on a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy that are narrow in their application and falling short.
Technology that seeks to solve the GBM problem with a simple and elegant cell engineering solution that protects the healthy tissues and delivers the treatment at the right place and time. The technology has also the potential to treat a wide variety of cancers, GBM, Sarcoma, Breast, Gastric and Ovarian that are HER2+.